Medicago’s transient expression manufacturing platform, Proficia™, has been developed and optimized for use with Nicotiana benthamiana – a relative of the tobacco plant. The leaves of these plants are well suited to rapidly incorporate, in a non-permanent fashion, the genetic information required to produce high yields of VLPs. Thanks to the extensive experience accumulated on tobacco cultivation, scale-up and maintenance costs are relatively low. Furthermore, because fully grown plants are used, no potentially time-consuming crop development steps are necessary. By using plants in general, costs associated with infrastructure and raw materials are lower, and the risk of viral contaminants from animal sources is substantially reduced.